Office of International Affairs OIA

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A plan is required for Afghan self-sufficiency, building on the foundations of water, electricity, transport and other unfinished projects that were abandoned in 2021. The plan should focus initially on restarting development efforts that were conceived and funded before the Taliban takeover, to avoid jettisoning years of work. Its other elements should be added cautiously, with attention to principles of equity and inclusion so that women, minorities and other disadvantaged groups get their fair share.

It defined how the EU conducted its policy dialogues and cooperation with non-EU countries, based on clearly defined priorities and embedded in the EU’s overall external action, including development cooperation. Strategic, policy-driven programming of the EU’s external funding will be essential to implement the new comprehensive approach towards migration. The proposed architecture of the EU’s external financial instruments also provides for additional flexibilities to respond to unforeseen circumstances or crises.

With different strategies to challenge or reform the many dimensions of international order, China’s role is not a one-way street. It is an interactive process in which the world may change China as much as China may change the world.

Our partners are state and local law enforcement, other DOJ components and U.S. government agencies, and foreign investigators and prosecutors. Explore issues relating to environmental security and the organizations addressing it. The continued invasion of Ukraine is altering relationships across Europe and beyond and is likely to have political and economic implications for decades to come. The relationship between the U.S. and Russian governments has become much more difficult. Challenging relationships also have been seen between the U.S. government and the governments of Iran and Cuba. And the relationship between the U.S. and Chinese government has become more competitive. Igor Ivanov is president of the Russian International Affairs Council, professor at the Moscow State Institute of International Relations, and from 1998 to 2004 was minister of foreign affairs of the Russian Federation.

Since the chemical weapons disarmament deal between the United States and Russia, there have been several attempts to open a new dialogue, though none have prospered. In the interim, the Syrian opposition has splintered and the more radical factions have gained considerable ground. In Libya, the nation has been in a state of chaotic upheaval since Gaddafi’s death, with immediate consequences for other Mediterranean countries. The growing division of the country, which culminated in the creation of two governments and allowed Islamic State militias to gain footholds in parts of eastern Libya , makes it even harder to maintain security as the country is assailed by myriad internal and external challenges. In addition to terrorism, the repercussions of the Libyan conflict for migratory pressure and the possibility that it may spread to the rest of this already debilitated region pose real threats to Europe. In fact, some are already saying that Libya is poised to become the “Mediterranean’s Somalia”. The expansion of China’s global interests and the subsequent increase in its overseas security footprint have led the Chinese leadership to elevate the role of military diplomacy in supporting China’s foreign policy objectives.

Some view managing migration as the key issue, while others focus primarily on challenges to economic development. Environmental problems and political radicalism affect countries differently; and the involvement of the latter in global economic and financial processes varies as well. Hence, it is so difficult to talk about a common agenda for the humanity, let alone to agree on a common action plan, even for the near future. The Taliban takeover of Kabul in 2021 posed a complicated series of problems for the twenty-year-old UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan , including the basic issue of how to engage the new de facto authorities. UNAMA was originally designed to support the previous government, not a Taliban administration that still lacks international recognition. The Security Council and UN officials had precious little time to think about how to repurpose the mission in late 2021, as a combination of Western aid cutoffs and the wartime economy’s collapse plunged the country into the world’s biggest humanitarian crisis.

  • But this is not the time to throw up our hands and become cynical about the power of science diplomacy to affect change and reduce conflict.
  • As the preparatory reports on the new European foreign policy accurately point out, EU external action needs to be more flexible to increase the effectiveness of all its measures.
  • One can often hear that countries can protect themselves from the negative consequences of unpredictable fluctuations in the global economy and politics by limiting their involvement in global processes.
  • I believe that the U.S. should be pragmatic in handling its foreign policy and handle each situation independently without a fix doctrine in order to minimize the unintended consequences produced by the globalization of the world.
  • As presented in the brief summaries here, a wide range of hazards not only pose dangers to societies around the globe, but also creates challenges that undermine effective governance.
  • Knowing this, the EU’s High Representative for Foreign Affairs, Federica Mogherini, has been mandated to prepare a new global strategy on foreign policy, with the perspective and focus needed to promote EU external action and increase its effectiveness.

War, the use of force, is often thought of as the ultimate tool of international relations. A popular definition is that given by Carl von Clausewitz, with war being “the continuation of politics by other means”. The study of war in international relations is covered by the disciplines of “war studies” and “strategic studies”. The balance of power was a concept prevalent in Europe prior to the First World War, the thought being that by balancing power blocs it would create stability and prevent war. Theories of the balance of power gained prominence again during the Cold War, being a central mechanism of Kenneth Waltz’s neorealism.

Director of Research – Foreign Policy

The United States uses a wide range of tools to advance a freedom agenda, including bilateral diplomacy, multilateral engagement, foreign assistance, reporting and public outreach, and economic sanctions. We work with democratic partners, international and regional organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and engaged citizens to support those seeking freedom. The U.S. government leads the international community in responding to crises, conflicts, and natural disasters. An estimated 45 million people worldwide, primarily women and children, have been uprooted from their homes due to conflict and persecution. Each year, natural disasters displace tens of millions more and climate change is increasing the frequency and intensity of events such as hurricanes and drought. U.S. humanitarian assistance aims to save lives, alleviate suffering, and minimize the costs of conflict, crises, disasters, and displacement. This requires that the United States respond urgently to emergencies, and make concerted efforts to address hunger, resolve protracted humanitarian situations, and build the capacity to prevent and mitigate the effects of conflict and disasters.

Some countries are destination countries or host large number of people in need of protection. For these reasons, they are priority countries for the EU regarding migration cooperation. In the security area, the focus is on the security sector reform as well as the fight against terrorism, meet kazakhstan women corruption, serious and organised crime and cybercrime. Building economic opportunities thereby contributing to addressing some of the root causes of irregular migration, in particular through trade, investments and development assistance.

This report offers a perspective on how the UK could maximise its influence in the High North through enhanced cooperation across government and within multilateral fora in order to tackle environmental and geopolitical changes in the region. RAND periodically sends alerts and newsletters to update Congress on highlights of recent work about international affairs. Programs offered at an independent public policy research organization—the RAND Corporation. Sub-Saharan African countries are important origin and transit countries of irregular migration to the EU and for this reason, they are priority countries for the EU regarding migration cooperation. Some countries are also important partners in security cooperation, in particular in fighting serious and organised crime and terrorism. Countries in the Western Balkans and Turkey are important countries of origin and transit of irregular migration to the EU .


The impact of new technologies on the system of international relations is extremely controversial. On the one hand, technological progress is conducive to the expansion of cooperation between countries, peoples, regions, private sector and civil society institutions. Entirely new opportunities emerge for what sociologists refer to as “upward social mobility,” both for individuals and for entire countries. People know each another better than they did just a few decades ago, and we have every right to call ourselves unified humankind.

Historical development

Today, more people than ever before live in a country other than the one in which they were born. Democracy is a universally recognized ideal and is one of the core values and principles of the United Nations. Democracy provides an environment for the protection and effective realization of human rights. Cyberspace is a new arena of interaction with many features still fluid and subject to transformation and change.